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Who was Angkar Leu from 1973-79?(Part.2)
Posted By: SLK <mailto:firstname.lastname@example.org?subject=Who
was Angkar Leu from 1973-79?(Part.2)> (cache3.net2000.com.au)
Date: Monday, 26 August 2002, at 5:18 p.m.
continued from Part1:
Father François Ponchaud also emphasized: the origins of the Khmer Communist Party that is now running Kampuchea date from the anti-colonialists struggle against the French. Ho Chi Minh, whose aim was to get France out of Indochina and set up a socialist regime there, founded the “Indochinese Communist Party” on 3 February 1930. It was joined by a newly formed Cambodian section composed solely of Vietnamese and Chinese nationals living in Cambodia, who could exert no profound influence upon the Khmeduring the first Indo-Chinese war. The Khmers in Cochin China had always been fiercely political, detached from their motherland since the eighteen century; they lived under the dominion of the Vietnamese, shielded by France. Their Khmer honor suffered from this, and from early childhood they had to defend themselves against the Vietnamese in order to preserve their own culture. “Ever since we were children,” one of them says, “We were taught to hate the monarchy because it was the monarchy’s fault that we had lost our Khmer identity.”
Then, Nguyen Van Mien/ Son Ngoc Minh cooperated with Tou Samouth (nickname, Achar Sok) as the chairmen of Committees of the National United Front. Therefore, on 19 June 1951, the United National Front of Kampuchea was led by a masquerade-Achar Mien/ Son Ngoc Minh, which is today known as “Cambodian People's Revolutionary Party/ Pracheachon. Vietcong cadres seized the opportunity to push the people into open rebellion. NVA/Vietcong, by taking advantage of the confusion that followed Prince Sihanouk’s deposition, invaded two-thirds of Cambodia, where they were hiding, to wait for the right time to come to achieve their long-time dream of forming “Indo-Chinese federation, which was led by the machine of Hanoi. In the countryside, they got Sihanouk’s good graces for their sanctuaries to liberate South Vietnam. In 1965, South Vietnamese had a good blessing from American intervention. Meanwhile, more and more Vietcong/NVAs were sent deeper and deeper into the countryside. In 1970, 20,000 Vietcong/NVAs flooded into all over Cambodian territory; those who have had every good experiences of war, and know Cambodian geography far better than the Cambodian people. Lon Nol claimed that they had between 35,000 and 40,000 troops in the country. He published maps of their bases and supply lines, and he pointed out that their spread was due to flooding and to “the operation-pressures exerted by their adversary,” “that is, to clearly operations by American and South Vietnam troops.”
William Shawcross, in “Sideshow”, who provided us more clearly evidences that: In February 1970, Lon Nol called a meeting of provincial governors in Phnom Penh to discuss the Vietnamese situation. Apparently, the governors painted a dismal picture of the high-handed manner in the Vietcong and North Vietnamese were behaving in several provinces. Lon Nol then closed Sihanoukville to communist supplies and shipments as Sihanouk had done for a time in the spring of 1969. A report on communist infiltration, designed to stir up public anger, was presented to the Assembly; there were now alleged to be 60,000 communist troops in the country-20, 000 more than Lon Nol had estimated in September.
Lon Nol had only 27, 000 FANK troops in the country. That’s why there was a coup d’etat of 13 March 1970, to have removed Sihanouk as a Head of State. Lon Nol had to receive a broken stone (Scapegoat), which was the old totalitarian-corrupt regime of Sihanouk automatically left to him. During that period, we were very negligent to let the flood rising over our roofs and then we all started to swim confusingly to find a shelter, but we then were all drowned slowly to the “pawns of Death”. Khieu Samphan and Khmer communists were in a horrified emotion to sign of supporting Sihanouk on March 26, 1970. From the outset of Cambodian crisis, China decided to back Prince Sihanouk all the ways, and welcomed him in Peking on 19 March 1970 with all the honors accorded to a Chief of State. On 25 March 1970, Chou en-Lai urged him and Pham van Dong, North Vietnamese Minister of Foreign Affairs, to form a “United Front of the Three Indo-Chinese Peoples”; this led to the canton Conference, held on 24 and 25 April, over which Chou En-Lai came to preside over in person. At that time, Prince Sihanouk, Prince Souphanouvong (Laos), Pham van Dong (North Vietnam) and Nguyen Huu Tho (South Vietnam NLF) decided to join forces at military and diplomatic levels in order to drive the American imperialists out of Indo-China.
At that time, these incidences were so confused in Cambodia, which was like bringing thousands and thousands of fuel to pour onto the flame/inferno was on fire. That was a really disaster of Cambodia, was that hundreds of thousands of Vietcong/NVAs who were still hiding in the Cambodian jungles preparing for war, taking Khmer communists’ name and Sihanouk’s. And, in the countryside, the Vietcong/NVAs wore badges representing the deposed prince, whom they swore to restore to power. Armed with taped-recorders, they played tapes of the prince’s call to rebellion that had been broadcast over radio Peking. The peasants wept with joy and greeted the Vietnamese as their liberators. Provincial administrations either went over to the revolutionaries or fled. The civil servants, schoolteachers and students, who were blamed for the prince’s deposition, were hunted down and executed by Lon Nol’s secret police.
Vietcong/NVAs further declared:
From 1970 to 1973, pro-Sihanoukists were fighting against pro-Lon Nolists. They bursted with joyfulness and shouted in the name of Sihanouk to instigate the poor peasants and workers to hate corrupt Lon Nol regime, and to restore Sihanouk to power. In the United States, the President Nixon didn’t know much about Vietnamese tricks/circuses. He authorized the American-South Vietnamese forces to launch a clean-up operation extending forty kilometers inside Cambodian territory and lasting from 30 April to June 30 1970. Therefore, as a Cambodian old saying; “The Giant [US] received a blessing from the Shiva (Vietnamese)”. Both North and South Vietnamese are so extremely tricky, taking advantage of this official blessing on an incursion into Khmer territory to avenge and overavenge their compatriots who had been massacred by Lon Nol’s men the month before; their savagery drove a large number of Cambodian peasants over to the Khmer communists who were in the jungles with Vietcong/NVAs leaders. And, Nguyen van Thieu’s savage horde Cambodia came to invade, pillage, burn, ruin, destroy Cambodia, and to rob, torture, rape and murder Cambodians. That was the high price Nguyen Van Thieu’s Government made Cambodia pay in exchange for the military protection it provided the faltering Khmer Republic.
Thieu’s army assumed the right to ship all it wanted of the Cambodians’ cattle, buffaloes, cars, machines…Etc., back effectively to South Vietnam. It went so far as to send giant helicopters to scavenge in Khmer territory. Equipped with hooks and steel cables, they lifted cars (private property) and industrial equipment. Thieu’s troops also ransacked several Buddhist pagodas in the countryside. After the agreements concluded with North Vietnam on January 27, 1973, America undertook to restore peace in Cambodia by detaching the Khmer Rouge from Sihanouk and launching the idea of a coalition government to be formed after negotiation with all political parties. The president Nixon authorized the US Airforce to drop 40,000 tons of bombs on Cambodia between 7 March and 15 August 1973 every month, causing the deaths of 200,000 persons.
Ray Bonds, in [The Vietnam War], provided us a good example that, on 3 May, American forces entered Mimot; on 5-13 May 1970, Snuol was occupied. Two days later, US troops discovered a vast bunker complex-nicknamed “The City”- in nearby jungle. Intelligence analysts later determined that the complex was the supply depot for 7th North Vietnamese Division. It contained some 182 large storage bunkers-most of them full of clothing, food, medical supplies, weapons and ammunition-as well as 18 mess halls, barracks, training and classroom facilities, and a small farm. Items captured included 1,282 individual and 202 crew-served weapons; more than 1.5 million rounds of small arms ammunition; 58.000 lbs. (26, 300 kg) of plastic explosive; 22 cases of anti-personnel mines; 30 short tons (26.8 tons; 27.2 tonnes) of rice; and 16, 000 lbs. (7, 260 kg) of corn; 1, 100 lbs. (500 kg) of salt. This was only part of the material uncovered in the sweep: many smaller supply dumps were later found elsewhere, some reserved for such equipment as automotive parts and communication gear. The searchers located more than 300 vehicles-mostly trucks, but including a Porsche sport-car and Mercedes Benz sedan. But no trace was found of COSVAN, the Vietcong headquarters reputed to consist of 2, 400 personnel, and most of the Vietcong were able to escape west through the jungle into more remote Cambodian sanctuaries.
The Cambodian survivors who were living along the Vietnamese-Cambodian Border, many of whom had no shelter/quarter, were short of everything. If they went to live in the provincial towns, who would be starved to death. So they had to adventure with their families in the jungles to join the forces with the Khmer Rouge. “Who were the Khmer Rouge, then?” Yiey Tien asked herself in an alarming voice. A proverb goes: out of frying pan into the fire. At this time, the Vc who took a great interest of those unlucky-poor Khmer Victims to be recruited as (Youtheas) soldiers. The Vc/NVAs stood successfully in queue to welcome those newcomers of Khmer Victims happily, by instigating them to take revenge against the imperialists. Thousands of young men enlisted enthusiastically, eager to fight the enemy, but those who were inspired loyalty by the Vc to fight against their Khmer Brothers and Sisters). Those newly recruited Cambodian elite was out touch with reality. However, they were misled to stop supporting the Lon Nol Government soon after, and they swore to avenge to their dead by Vietcong’s political stratagem and instigation. r people. The first Cambodian revolutionaries made their appearance in the Khmer minority in Cochin China,
Vietcong/NVAs assigned those newly recruited Khmer Rouge Youtheas into 3 groups: the first group of young Youtheas, age between 9-13 years old, called “Krom Trey Kanchoh” (the name of a small fish with two barbs or whiskers), whose leaders were all former bandits, or barbarians-lack of fundamental race of human decency; “ second group of youth-volunteers” were willingly to destroy the Lon Nol Government, to restore Samdech Sihanouk to power (this 2nd group had 40, 000 Youth-Volunteers); the third ones “ Group Loyalty to Vietcong”, that they must sabotage the feudalists and imperialists ( not knowing how many in this group, who were taken away by the Vc into a secret place.)
Khmer children should know and must not forget about Hanoi’s Criminal-political stratagem! Angkar and Hanoi came from the only one source. By the end of 1973, there was a party at a new Prime Minister Pan Sithi’s house. Yiey Tien, was also invited to that party, who had a good opportunity to tell every one about Ho Chi Minh’s pre planned of expanding control in Cambodia that will be incorporated into an Indochinese Communist Party. Pan Sithi then laughed at her like a monkey’s face and then he responded that Vietcong was in difficulty of finding food to eat; what could they do to us? There were 15 guests at that occasion that sat round the table starring at her widely. But no one questioned or answered her anything. A moment later, an officer-Neuv Tal, who looked at her by saying that, “we-Khmer should be careful of that, because it could be happened as Mrs. Tien said so.”
“Look, Bo Dois, who are the fanatics of Indochinese Communist Party at the first phase, must destroy the feudalists and imperialists. How come could they sacrifice their lives on sacred soil of Cambodia to help Sihanouk?” Yiey Tien exclaimed in despairing voice. Pan Sithi then shrugged his shoulder by asserting that our secret agents reported that Bo Dois all retreated from Cambodia…
“Who was the Angkar Leu?” asked Yiey Tien. “By the end of the 1973, the Vietcong thought of the 2nd group Khmer Rouge Youtheas were strong enough to hold their own against Lon Nol. The North Vietnamese combat divisions were withdrawn from Cambodia for the offensive in South Vietnam in a sham. The VC pretended to go home-Vietnam by saying goodbye to those poor, uneducated Khmer Rouge Youtheas. Before they retreated from Cambodia combat, they had sent a disguised group of real Vietnamese to lead those Khmer Rouge Youtheas for them. Those disguised Khmers were purely 100% of Vietnamese men, who used to living in Cambodia, learned very well about both Khmer lecture and language in school in Phnom Penh, were forcibly repatriated back to Vietnam from 1970 to 1971, were barbarian vindicators willing to come back to Cambodia, take revenge against the Cambodian students who staged anti-Vietnamese in 1970. Those Vietnamese men had changed their Vietnamese names to Cambodian ones…(Like Duk, whose real name was “Duc” in Vietnamese, was the Chief of prison of Tuol Sleng.)
Vietcong withdrew at this time to have hid her faces in the jungle of Cambodian territory, to be waiting to see the stupidity of the Khmers to kill each other. Some times, the leaders of the 2nd group of “Yuveachan-Smak Chet/ Volunteer Soldiers” had to go into the jungle to get ultimate order from Vietcong. They-leaders always told those Yuveachan Smak-Chet a lie that they had to go to learn from Angkar Leu…” Aha, Yiey Tien exclaimed, Khmer Brothers and Sisters! “Angkar Leu was born since then!” These words Yuon-Vietcong had used for threatening and exterminating Kampuchea Krom people since 1945, in Vietnamese language “ Cap Tren,” in English “An Anonymous Higher Organisation,” in Cambodian “Angkar Leu,” which was revealed by Hanoi’s secret-political stratagem to help Khmers two times.
International political analysts, CIA officers and many other foreign journalists had all false information about Vietnamese withdrawal of Cambodia in 1973. VC/NVA did pull their troops out of the international arena, to have hidden their faces in the jungles of Cambodian territory, to lead the poor, uneducated Khmer Rouge soldiers who had their bitter guts to avenge against their enemy (Khmers killed Khmers). The Hanoi Leaders are so cunning to have concealed tactfully their dirty-secret-pogrom plans of Khmer Race since then, as an old saying: “The cat hides their claws waiting to catch a mouse”. Hanoi leaders did really use their secret words “Angkar Leu” to murder more than 2 000 0000 Cambodian people; yet could not be condemned by the world and UN.
The prince was welcomed back to Peking in triumph, and on April 12 1973, the Chinese gave him a banquet at which Chou En-Lai praised him warmly. For his part, Sihanouk gave vent to his feelings in a diplomatic manner. He criticized “peace-loving” countries that sought to impose a cease-fire on Cambodia. He said American claims that North Vietnam was still fueling the war untrue-the resistance was no longer receiving aid. He denounced American peace plans that involved the partition of the country…
The prince Sihanouk and Khieu Samphan were betrayed by North Vietnam from 1970 to 1979. As Chou En-lai told Ambassador, Manac’h that the longer war in Cambodia continued, the more extreme and harsh would be final victory. During the course of his talks with le Duc Tho, Kissinger had attempted to obtain an assurance that cease-fires could be arranged in Cambodia and Laos as well as in Vietnam. The North Vietnamese were able to give satisfactory assurances on Laos; Hanoi had always dominated the Pathet Lao. In Cambodia, however, no such guarantees could be given, because of the growing tension between the North Vietnamese and the Khmer Rouge. During 1972, when almost all North Vietnamese combat divisions were withdrawn from Cambodia for the offensive in South Vietnam, reports of fairly constant fighting between the allies reached Phnom Penh and Washington. By the end of the year the Khmer Rouge were fielding an army of around 50, 000 men, organized in regiments, and were strong enough to hold their own against Lon Nol, with only logistical support from the North Vietnamese. They could now act independently of Hanoi. Did the Khmer Rouge really act independently of Hanoi after 1973? Rubbish! They did withdrew their troops from international level, to have hidden their faces in the jungles of Cambodian territory, waiting for a good time to come for action as happened from 1975 to 1979. As Nixon evidently believed in 1973 (and still in 1978) that the Khmer Rouge were controlled by Hanoi and were amenable to Moscow. But William Shawcross did not believe Nixon’s words because I think he does not know much about Hanoi’s long-time wish to eat up Cambodia, little by little, one by one until the end of Khmer race was left on the Maps of the world as Hanoi used to eating up Kampuchea Krom.
To compare the articles from foreign authors/ journalists who claimed to be Cambodian expert, but didn’t mention about the “Hidden faces and names of Angkar Leu/ Cap Tren: we have seen that the Khmer Rouge was a family affair. One might say as much about the Khmer Issarak Liberation Front (Free Cambodians), headed by 1950 on by Son Ngoc Minh, a relative of Son Ngoc Thanh’s (one of the Khmer Serei leader’s brothers, Son Thai Nguyen, was also elected to the South Vietnam Senate). The putative father of a dissident movement, Son Ngoc Minh became the head f the Khmer Vietminh. Following the Geneva agreements of 1954, they went over to Hanoi. The elderly Son Ngoc Minh, eliminated by the Khmer Rouge in 1972, did not fully taste the fruits of his plotting. His successors, even if they deny it, are Heng Samrin and his pro-Vietnamese cohorts, who moved into Phnom Penh when Hanoi invaded the city in January 1979. A Radio Hanoi program in December 1978, claimed the Khmer Rouge had subsequently poisoned the old Khmer communist movement, that is, uniting the Khmer Rouge and Khmer-Vietminh.
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