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Who was Angkar Leu from 1973-79?(Intro)

Posted By: SLK < was Angkar Leu from 1973-79?(Intro)> (
Date: Monday, 26 August 2002, at 5:27 p.m.

Ta Thien ignored, by scorning the Khmer and Laotian people, answering that there would be nothing to be hard. But Our Party have to spend more times, because Khmer and Laotian people who are zealous Buddhists. As the people always are grateful to anyone who’s done them a lot of favors, as the kind and frank, honest people are quick believers who trust in [someone] who’s done them a great favor. Therefore, we have to train our spies how to be patient; how to try to gain favor or get in someone’s good graces; how to surrender themselves to the enemy…Etc. We have to use all the political sways to make them (Cambodian-Laotian) dash their hopes, and then we make them have high hopes again!” but anyone, who was a stubborn, could be very dangerous to Our Party, we had to kill them at once, without delay! The time was running short; Yuon Ieng asked the last question, “Does Our Party has to lose many Bo Dois as well as the properties?”

“Cambodia and Lao, whose people and properties would be well-kept in tact-nothing to be destroyed. The two people, are 90% by respecting their kings and Buddhist religions, whose regimes we could not overthrow, and then annexing their countries into an Indochinese Communist Party which is the enemy of their kings and their Buddhist religions! Its’ ridiculous, it would not be too easy to do that!

A chairman Nguyen Van Thien as a teacher educating those candidates, within Our Party, they know to use the stable-minded and find an excuse to further explain he responded that where there is a revolution, there is a progress. Our Bo Dois, who are the survivors, had perfect experiences, techniques of war…Our Party had to recruit more Bo Dois. Brothers had to train their little brothers from their experiences. About the psychology, our comrades had learned for so many years; we could know the behaviors of every Khmer political party and milieu. We could extract a lesson to train our spies more and more…Etc. we would lose one thing, [but] we could find five things was that when we took a wonderful victory over Cambodia and Laos which were incorporated into a Indochinese Communist Party was successful! The properties of the two countries, which would belong to Our Party. Do not think about that yet! Let them keep it for a while and so on!

Before the meeting ended, Yuon, whose name Ieng, reminded those 29 candidates that Our Party prohibited to get free married, when all comrades had finished your studies had to come home. Cambodian and Laotian had to get married with Vietnamese. “We all raise our hands to make an loyal oath,” At the end of that meeting, a chairman Ta Thien pointed his fingers to Neang Tien to get up and show a piece of paper to be read to those candidates who had to repeat after her. “ we promise to keep these secrecies to the end of our lives.” Then Ieng warned to all comrades who knew these secret plans, “if one of you are double-crossed to escape from the communication lines. Our Party had to search for you who had to be killed on the spot!”

On the morning of March 1 1948, Neang Tien asked for permission from Ad Hoc Committee and friends to take a trip on feet to Phum Chang Prey, Khum Pheouk Heung, to say good bye to her parents, uncles-aunts and brothers-sisters and man other relatives of her that she was going to Peking on 3 March 1948, to study political stratagem, which had to be learned by heart that she dares not to tell anyone! When the time came to say goodbye, her parents and her brothers and sisters embraced her warmly crying (Neang Tien was at the age of 20 years old in those days). Miss Tien respected and loved her father very much was because of her father who was a very patient man to struggle so that she was well educated. In those days, almost Kampuchea Krom daughters were not allowed to learn anything. She remembers that she was the fourth daughter of Ta Kim Vanna who was a layman arranged a ceremony in Prateaksen Nikroot temple. He always carried his fourth daughter to temple every holy day. At the age of 6-7, Neang Tien learned very well about Dharma-the only ultimate reality, the ultimate real end (in Buddhist theory); right, virtue, the order of things (by extension: the order, the law in Buddhist doctrine); moral principles; nature; duty; piety. In first day, she saw the boys reading a textbook (which is made of Latania leaves which in the past hundred years the authors/writers have written in the folk legend). Chau Banana Seath which she listened very carefully (Chau means “grandchild”; Srateup Chek means “Banana Seath”, which is very famous among other Cambodian folk legends).

When she was about to be separated from her parents, she remembers bitterly that she felt sympathy for her father very much because he wanted her to be educated until she was going to be separated from them-hope not to see them again. Despairingly, she embraced him in tears. Then words failed Ta Kim Vanna, who was worried, nearly lost his mind, by speaking very little but the meaning was so important, and then answered ignorantly, “Don’t worry too much, Ah Tien when you finished your studies, you still had to come and meet me!” Miss Tien then felt very sorry for her father, screaming and forgetting the secret words of a chairman Ta Thien, failing to hold her tongue exclaiming “Oh, father! When finishing my studies, I could not see all of you; especially I had to get married with Yuon. Mr Kieng In, who was my arranged fiancé, I supposed that is the end!” Having heard the word marrying with Yuon soon after like a bullet shot right into the head of everyone. Parents, brothers-sisters and many other relatives of hers, who were in unrest, closing their hands and gritting their teeth angrily toward the Vietminh’s unreasonable orders, were issued. Therefore, Ta Vanna’s families made up their mind at once to send Neang Tien away from the liberated zone to take an adventure to Krang Ta-vinh, where there were pro-French. At about 21 p.m., her second brother then was walking her across a vast plain to Ba Trach village to meet girl-Meung. He gave his sister to Meung and then he returned to his Chang Prey village at once.

At about 24 p.m., Meung walked Neang Tien through Ba Trach temple and then through a small plain-the east of Wat to Pnoo Ompoong village and then she gave Neang Tien to Ta Chieh and Yiey keum, two of whom helped Neang Tien continuing her trip to Om Bok Bey. At 2 a.m., Yiey-Ta, who were very kind, directing Neang Tien through a vast plain, even though they were very fatigue, they didn’t even stop for a rest. Reaching Om Bok Bey at 4 a.m., just as the villagers were about to leave carrying the poultry, fishes, rice in a big bag and vegetables selling to French partisans who were in Kompong Khteoung. Ta-Chieh and Yiey Keum embraced Neang Tien in order to say farewell and then they returned to their village in tears and sympathized for this poor girl. Neang Tien had wandered around after the sellers to the Kompong Khteoung Post. Upon her lonely trip, she was safe enough, then she crying as walking, to remember to have a pity respectful Ta-Chieh and Yiey Keum with all her heart when they left her. By chance, Neang Tien was stunned-no word to say was the only tears that was that signal I had suffered so painful in my heart.

At about 9, on March 2 1948, Neang Tien had to present herself to Chef De convoy in order to ask for a lift to the Travinh province. That Chef De convoi was a Vietnamese when he saw her, he starred at her widely for a while. All of a sudden, he opened a book from one page to the other one; he saw only the pictures of Neang Tien. A few moments later, he asked her, “Would you like to go to the Travinh province?” Neang Tien replied “Yes, I do.” That Yuon signed on a ticket with a free charge, which he handed to Neang Tien, by saying “I have to meet you at 8 a.m. tomorrow morning at the terminal bus.” At that night, Neang Tien had to sleep on the ground which she had nothing to cover her body, like many other travelers. She just knew that night only one convoi running once a week. She was so happy for she came just in time the convoi for going tomorrow (in those days, Vietminh came up to kill the townspeople every night).

Early morning of 3 March 1948, there were 50 convoys along the road to Travinh province. Neang Tien was rushed to find convoi to get in. Chef De Convoi came and met her and then he showed her to the convoi who she was on. Miss Tien had a comfortable place, had a good feeling to thank to this mysterious and kind Yuon very much. The convoi had arrived in Travinh at about 6pm, Neang Tien was too excited about her safe trip. She got off quickly, walking about five steps, all of a sudden a Vietnamese man in police uniform, who was about 27 years of age, held her hand and then he was walking her to a jeep parking nearby. And then, he ordered her to get in on the passenger’s back seat with a police pointing a gun at her. That jeep drove off along the bank of a river then they turned off to give her up to that office. Neang Tien was relieved as cotton, for instance like a boat sunk in the river, being worried, nearly falls down in a faint. Suddenly having heard speaking in Khmer: “ I could not believe at all that there was a Khmer girl as a leader of Vietminh!” Neang Tien opened her eyes widely to look around to that voice, she saw a man, about 34, was a strong built, tall, curly hair and long face, keen eyes, a very sharp-pointed nose and sambao Khmer (=color).

Neang Tien then embraced that stranger and moaned “Brother Ba!” Three of whom very surprised to have seen such a strange manner. Kampuchea Krom boys and girls from over 15, in those days, would not be allowed to hug together, had a very strict discipline, even speaking would not be allowed in a secret place. After having heard Neang Tien called “Brother Ba”, only then they knew it was Ngan Thi Ba (Thi= girl so Ngan Thi Ba was a girl). Ngan Thi Ba was a half-boy and half-girl, who started wearing dress like a girl, when she was small, had lived and played sport. Since 1940, Neang Tien came to study in the town of Ta-Vinh, had meal, slept on bed, and living in house with Ngan Thi Ba in this Mray Village. In 1946, the Department of educational sent Neang Tien as a teacher in Srok Ta-Vinh, since then we had never seen each other again but we had met this time by chance.

Neang Tien held Ngan Thi Ba’s hand tightly, crying as asking, “Ba, what are you doing today?” Ba answered, “I was a Sergeant Chef as an Interpreter in Phum Mray Post.” When Neang Tien heard he was a sergeant chef, she released his hand, stood gaping and thinking about herself “Ah, what a stupid fool I am here!” Hugging a man in an open-space in front of her uncle and chief was to lose all women’s rules. She was quite embarrassed, went to embrace her uncle instead, by crying and asking for forgiveness that she be badly behaved. Thach Ty Hung held his niece’s hand and Ngan Thi Ba’s left hand and then he said: “That was good that we could tackle the problem for Miss Tien easily. Miss Tien just has hugged Ngan Thi Ba a moment ago-that wasn’t a serious crime. Now I must decide immediately is at dusk-no one can see us. Ah Tien has to sleep in the Post but at dawn Ngan Thi Ba has to send Ah Tien immediately out of the Post to Thom Pao Seth’s house before the villagers get up. What do you-Ngan Thi Ba think of my view?” Then Ngan Thi Ba embraced Thach Ty Hung lovingly and cheerfully to say: “I am willing to support Ah Tien all the ways as I possibly can.”

In May 1948, Mr Pan Lao had appointed Neang Tien as a teacher again teaching Kampuchea Krom students in French+Khmer at Ecole Primaire Complementaire Franco Indochina Mixte Chef Lieu De Tra-vinh. As for Vietminh were very angry, should not make such a mistake. They were very frustrated toward a person, who they trusted to tell about the Party’s secret plans, was double-crossed, and ran away from the Party’s communication lines. So they tried to search and kill a traitor of the Party as an example if he/she was caught. Since Miss Tien had escaped from the liberated zone, her parents did not have enough time to cultivate rice in a field at all because Vietminh always invited Ta-Yiey to stand and watch when Vietminh started to kill a Kampuchea Krom innocence man who was accused of being the traitor. Sometimes, the killings were held in a football field nearby the house, and sometimes the killings held in a remote area-two days and two nights’ long walk. After finished the killings, Vietminh always threatened Tien’s parents to death that if Ta and Yiey could find abdication bring Tien back to Chieu Khu in a short time, you would be pardoned. But be careful, if the Department of Intelligence caught her, Our Party would kill her so that every body can watch as an example. The word “threatening” was seen by the public eyes very often, cutting a human head left virtually on the victims’ shoulder. Ta-Yiey were extremely frightened, who had asked a Buddhist monk whose name Lam Reoung (Lam Reoung is in USA now) to take two letters to Mr Thach Ty Hung. In the first letter telling their daughter: “You-daughter have to run away quickly to Kampuchea Kandal”. The second ones was handed to Mr Thach Ty Hung, with Kieng In’s address, was an arranged fiancé of their daughter. After receiving a letter, Thach Ty Hung sent a telegram to Kieng In by telling that Ah Tien whom just has escaped from the Vietminh. Four days later, Surete Federal in Prey Nokor sent a telegram back to Thach Ty Hung. Kieng In volunteered to change his position to Battambang Surete Federal in Kampuchea. Thach Ty Hung sent more telegrams to him on April 5 1948 was the right time Kieng In was sitting, having marriage ceremony with Vietnamese girl-Huu Kim Dong at Ho Thach’s house the north of Wat in Sangkat Battambang.

Kieng In, one of the Kampuchea Krom sons, had no heart to get married with Vietnamese girl at all, who didn’t have any intention to abandon Miss Tien as his Kampuchea Krom arranged fiancée! The reason in 1947, Miss Tien was arrested by Vietminh, while Kieng In was working in Prey Nokor. He asked for a permission to go to the Travinh province to find Miss Tien. He had been waiting for ages to get news from her but in vain. At last, he met Mr Kim Cheak who fled to Travinh, just shook his head to Kieng In to be confirmed: “In, no hope at all because the civil servants who escaped from the Post with me to Travinh, only except one French Chef de Poste, besides that all of whom were killed on spot by Vietminh. As for Ah Tien was seen to get her caught at the right head of the first bridge”. Therefore, Kieng In was in despair had to go back to Surete Federal in Prey Nokor. The French government needed a person who could speak three languages-Khmer- Yuon and French to work in Surete federal at Battambang. He was a volunteer to go Kampuchea happily.

On April 5 1948, while he was getting married with a Vietnamese girl, soon after he had a telegram: “Ah Tien, who was your arranged fiancée, was still alive, went back to Travinh.” Kieng In was so worried and moaned, “Oh, my Buddha! It was too late, what can I do, then?” After three months of his wedding, he had received a first letter of his arranged fiancée, which was written by Miss Tien’s own hand to him. In those days, no girl dare write a letter to her fiancé at all. In that letter was to tell about her hardship for more than 19 months. Today, I have no hope at all. Because if I made a terrible mistake, Vietminh would arrest and kill me in agony…etc. when he finished reading that letter, he was so frustrated and eager to ask for a permission to take a trip immediately to Tra-vinh. Before he left for Travinh, had asked French man to help hire a small room for Miss Tien to stay for the present.

On July 17 1948, at about 12 Mr Kieng In had arrived in Thom Pao-Seth’s house in the Mray Village, in the north of Krang Travinh. That day, Miss Tien was engaged to contribute the awards to Cambodian students during the school’s holiday. 13 P.M., when she got home, walking through the sitting room to her bedroom. All of a sudden, she was so shaky like someone being afraid of a ghost haunting, because seeing a big built, tall man like Tarzan, who was so black, had straight hair, round face, wearing a soldier’s uniform with bushy beard grinning at her, showing off his snow-white teeth, she had never known and seen before, sitting in the sitting room. Suddenly she had a strange feeling; “Gee, if I had such a husband, I would rather die.” After changing her dress, she went into the kitchen room for lunch. Suddenly, Yiey Sam walked to touch her shoulder and said: “Ah! Ah Tien, today I have cooked the food for a special guest and a few friends of mine, including Ngan Thi Ba too. Miss Tien gazed directly into Thom Sam’s face with the eyes open widely and asking: “Who is that special guest?” Thom Sam starred at her for a while and answered: “Kieng In!” Miss Tien opened her eyes widely by answering jokingly “That black man!” Thom Sam opened her eyes wider to answer funnily: “Yes!” Miss Tien was in tears running down her face, sitting by the stove.

In the meantime, Thom (in Cambodian “Big” here is to address to a lady/gentle man which is very polite way to use in Cambodia) was receiving her guests in her house. Everybody so happy to see each other who thought Miss Tien would be safe on the way to Kampuchea. 16 p.m., at the same time, after having meal, everybody left. Because at 17 p.m., the State’s curfew. Kieng In thanks to his uncle, Pan Lao and Thom Pao’s family, and especially thanks to Ngan Thi Ba to confirm: “I and Miss Tien have to set off by tomorrow, at 15 by convoi. If we failed by tomorrow, had to wait for another week.” At 13, on July 18 1948, everybody had gathered in Thom Pao Seth’s house to say goodbye to Kieng In and Miss Tien, but Miss Tien had disappeared unexpectedly. Thach Ty Hung was rushing back and forth to find his niece. Then, Thom Pao Seth whispered to Thach Ty Hung about Ah Tien not loving Kieng In. soon after Thach Ty Hung knew this, his hair stood right up and whispered to Thom Pao Seth’s ear: “What could we do then?” Kieng In, who was a arranged fiancé according to our ancestral tradition, had risked his life to cross the river through the fighting/bullets to save Ah Tien.

Eagerly, Thach Ty Hung was looking for his niece for a long hour, but he found her hiding in a bathroom. He explained to her about the danger, if the Vietminh caught her who could be killed on the spot. Therefore, she had to run away from Kampuchea Krom. Then a ship gave a horn as first signal. Uncle Hung carried his poor niece’s hand out of the bathroom to Pao Lao who caressed her head expressing the sympathy for her and then handed some letters, and a permission to her by explaining that when you-Tien got to Battambang, you have to write to Mineducanale in Prey Nokor to resign from being a teacher. Kieng In walked straight to ask her that it was time for us to leave. Miss Tien raised her hands joining together in the highly elegant gesture of Khmer courtesy to say goodbye and thank to everybody. And then she went to kiss Yiey Sam and embraced Ngan Thi Ba who was poor friend since we were childhood. A ship then gave a second signal to warn that they are about to leave, and off we go.

When the convoy came through Colao-Co Cheu, turned left to the Cantho province. All of a sudden, Vietminh ambushed firing like popcorn to all French soldiers who bent down. As for Miss Tien, who still stood up, thought if she was killed now, may be safe for her. But there was no danger to us-the passengers because of another barge, which was loaded with rice, was running slowly. On the waterway of the Mekong, Bo Dois often ambushed firing at the convoys extremely heavily. But at that time, Bo Dois had only Muosquetoir; they could not shoot a convoy to sink. Now and then French soldiers fired back with Rafale Mitrailleuse to Bo Dois who were killed on the spot. On 3rd, at about 11 the convoy arrived in Cantho, Chef De Convoi ordered soldiers and all passengers to go onto a dock. We all went by train instead, to reduce the weight of the convoy, which had to carry the rice to Prey Nokor. Kieng In walked Miss Tien to the railway station, while French soldiers were on the train, which left Cantho for the Prey Nokor immediately. At the same day, about 17 Kieng In and Miss Tien got to Prey Nokor safely. Kieng In walked Miss Tien to Khmer Wat Chantaraingsey to leave her with nuns. As to him, had to go and contact a convoi to continue our trip to Phnom Penh.

About 10, on July 30 1948, he came to take Miss Tien out of the Wat to a convoy-about 500m away from Wat. He introduced Miss Tien to Chef De Convoy who was a French man, by telling a lie that she was his cousin who was an orphan. Kieng In brought her to Phnom Penh for continuing her studies. So Chef De Convoy accepted her reluctantly. He ordered Miss Tien to dress up as a soldier because this convoy was for only the soldiers-not for the civilians. When the convoy arrived at the head of the Monivong Bridge. Khmer PM who was on guard duty, checked on every convoy, suddenly found Miss Tien who was called to get off the convoy. She then was walked to Poste De Guarde. At that time, Chef De Convoi, Kieng In had been waiting for Miss Tien on the side of the road, eating their bread happily, for they didn’t bother about that guard who was thought to be the same Khmer. But on the contrary, that big brother (guard) didn’t question her for anything, who put her in a custody, by taking a pretext of accusing her of being Vietnamese spy crossed into the Cambodian territory illegally (Miss Tien was kept in a custody for his pleasure sexual assaults). In such a danger, Kieng In was so shocked to ask Chef De Convoi to stand surety for Miss Tien as a French temporary husband. At that time, they had a bitter argument for a good while, only then Miss Tien was set free from the custody. Some people asked: “Why is that big Khmer brother so black-hearted?” Answered: “Because Khmer mandarins, officials and ministers, for a century, who slept and ate well, enjoyed their lives, had never been oppressed by other nations, were short of political education and consciousness. Some used to have long exploited their own people, who had only an ambition of seizing power to be a top man or a tycoon. They don’t care about the suffering of Kampuchea Krom people who have been oppressed by Yuon who are trying to exterminate and disperse them all…Etc.”

After all, Miss Tien and Kieng In went to find a place to stay. At 20 the same day, Kieng In walked Miss Tien to Di Vinh Tri’s house, while having meal. All of a sudden, he heard knocking at the door, got up and went to open it. Oh! By seeing Kieng In with Miss Tien behind. This young boy was so frightened in rush, had no word to ask. Because Kieng In just stayed overnight at his house. Early morning, he left Tri’s house for Travinh. So Tri didn’t see him for more than two weeks. He was so surprised to see Kieng In in again safely. Before he left, he caressed Tri’s head telling him: “I brought Miss Tien to be your wife.” Tri thought Kieng In was joking. One evening, Kieng In walked Tri to meet Miss Tien. Both of who carried a few packs of food leaving on the floor of the sitting room. Tri went in to get him bathed instead, who didn’t care about anything. Kieng In walked into Miss Tien’s room to tell her to prepare dinner. Miss Tien went out of her room into the sitting room to open those packs of food left on the small mat. Kieng In then made the young boy Tri to drink a lot of beer, was 17, drunk and made endless speaking. Tri then tapped Kieng In on the shoulder by complaining him, “You-In are naughty man, you are already married. For what reason caused you to bring Sister-Tien here?” At that time, In looked so pale on his lip-no response. Miss Tien asked Tri: “Is it true?” Di Vinh Tri stayed quiet. Kieng In looked at Miss Tien widely to see her expressing of strange manner, surprisingly and smiling expression on her face . He extremely wondered, because on the trip with her more than half month ago through the battlefield, crossing the river, getting on and off the convoy/train, never seen her smiling, never heard her question. He dares not to look at Miss Tien any more! When Neang Tien was safe in Cambodia, she looked back to her parents in Kampuchea Krom. Her father was brutally beheaded by Vietcong because he refused to hand Neang Tien over to them. Vietcong beheaded her father in the eyes of public to warn to Kampuchea Krom people not to follow Neang Tien’s example. Because Neang Tien knew too much about their dirty-secret genocidal plans against Cambodians.

Simon Ross’s “The Subjugation of Cambodia” [.15], written in 1983: By now Son Ngoc Thanh and his free Cambodians had developed a very strong groundswell of popular support in Cambodia. The Vietminh attempted to cash in on this and ride to power in Phnom Penh on the backs of the Khmer Issaraks (Free Cambodians). Firstly, the communists boosted a previously unknown leader called Son Ngoc Minh (called Achar Mien), an obvious attempt to persuade Khmers that this newcomers was a close relative of the popular Son Ngoc Thanh. And as the free Cambodians had just formed a “Committee of National Liberation”, so the communists created a “Committee for the Liberation of the Cambodian people”.

Another Cambodian expert, Father Francois Ponchaud, speaks Khmer very fluently, and knows a lot of Cambodian Histories than other Cambodian historians. I heard his voice on the Radio 3EA, interviewed with Um Narong in Khmer language in late 1991. But he also didn’t know much about Hanoi’s dirty-secret-genocidal plans of Khmer race, has given us more information about the “Mysterious Son Ngoc Thanh”: in 1950, while the Khmer students in Paris were beginning to develop their ideas, the largely unknown Khmer revolutionaries from Cochin China founded the “United National Front” led by the mysterious Son Ngoc Minh-pseudonym of a chief who was said the to be the brother of much-loved Son Ngoc Thanh. The Front’s prime objective was to assist Vietnam in its national liberation struggle against France. These “Khmer-Vietminhs”, as they were called, sought to destroy France’s economic and financial holdings in Cambodia and sabotage communications within Indochina. The Front received very little support from the Khmers in Cambodia, who had small knowledge of political issues, and they endured the war of decolonization rather than taking any active part in it-to them, it was a Vietnamese affairs.

Father François Ponchaud also emphasized: the origins of the Khmer Communist Party that is now running Kampuchea date from the anti-colonialists struggle against the French. Ho Chi Minh, whose aim was to get France out of Indochina and set up a socialist regime there, founded the “Indochinese Communist Party” on 3 February 1930. It was joined by a newly formed Cambodian section composed solely of Vietnamese and Chinese nationals living in Cambodia, who could exert no profound influence upon the Khmeduring the first Indo-Chinese war. The Khmers in Cochin China had always been fiercely political, detached from their motherland since the eighteen century; they lived under the dominion of the Vietnamese, shielded by France. Their Khmer honor suffered from this, and from early childhood they had to defend themselves against the Vietnamese in order to preserve their own culture. “Ever since we were children,” one of them says, “We were taught to hate the monarchy because it was the monarchy’s fault that we had lost our Khmer identity.”

Then, Nguyen Van Mien/ Son Ngoc Minh cooperated with Tou Samouth (nickname, Achar Sok) as the chairmen of Committees of the National United Front. Therefore, on 19 June 1951, the United National Front of Kampuchea was led by a masquerade-Achar Mien/ Son Ngoc Minh, which is today known as “Cambodian People's Revolutionary Party/ Pracheachon. Vietcong cadres seized the opportunity to push the people into open rebellion. NVA/Vietcong, by taking advantage of the confusion that followed Prince Sihanouk’s deposition, invaded two-thirds of Cambodia, where they were hiding, to wait for the right time to come to achieve their long-time dream of forming “Indo-Chinese federation, which was led by the machine of Hanoi. In the countryside, they got Sihanouk’s good graces for their sanctuaries to liberate South Vietnam. In 1965, South Vietnamese had a good blessing from American intervention. Meanwhile, more and more Vietcong/NVAs were sent deeper and deeper into the countryside. In 1970, 20,000 Vietcong/NVAs flooded into all over Cambodian territory; those who have had every good experiences of war, and know Cambodian geography far better than the Cambodian people. Lon Nol claimed that they had between 35,000 and 40,000 troops in the country. He published maps of their bases and supply lines, and he pointed out that their spread was due to flooding and to “the operation-pressures exerted by their adversary,” “that is, to clearly operations by American and South Vietnam troops.”

William Shawcross, in “Sideshow”, who provided us more clearly evidences that: In February 1970, Lon Nol called a meeting of provincial governors in Phnom Penh to discuss the Vietnamese situation. Apparently, the governors painted a dismal picture of the high-handed manner in the Vietcong and North Vietnamese were behaving in several provinces. Lon Nol then closed Sihanoukville to communist supplies and shipments as Sihanouk had done for a time in the spring of 1969. A report on communist infiltration, designed to stir up public anger, was presented to the Assembly; there were now alleged to be 60,000 communist troops in the country-20, 000 more than Lon Nol had estimated in September.

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